Intellectual Diaspora as a Resource for Science Development: a Review of Experience in BRICS Countries (Brazil, South Africa and Russia)
The article deals with the problem of intellectual migration (outflow of qualified professionals, especially in the field of science and technology), in relation to the three emerging economies: Brazil, South Africa and Russia. The article includes comparative review of the above-mentioned countries in the field of intellectual migration management, taken within the context of attempts to exploit the scientific potential of the scientific diasporas as a tool for the development of a national S&T system. Main chronological scope of this article is from the early 1990s and until the second half of the 2000s, with some references to earlier periods and prospects for the future. The Brazilian example shows yet sufficiently significant results as to enable comparison of their complex, but one now still cannot speak of a coherent policy that takes into account the diaspora factor in the development of national S&T. For South Africa, the situation with the outflow of human capital is the most difficult, but at the same time, at the disposal of the country are relatively effective tools to build relationships with the scientific diaspora, although the potential of these tools, as might be expected, is not fully used. The Russian policy towards the “brain drain” problem is under formation during the 2010s, and has yet to develop a set of appropriate tools for its transformation into a “talent circulation” model.