Science Diplomacy: Dimensions and Practices
This article attempts to reveal the contents of a relatively young concept of “scientific diplomacy”, which includes three dimensions (science in diplomacy, diplomacy for science, science for diplomacy), as well as to identify key practices of all three dimensions of science diplomacy. The author identifies key practices that illustrate the three dimensions of science diplomacy: development of recommendations to the international policy objectives (science in diplomacy); simplification of the process of international scientific cooperation (diplomacy for science); the use of scientific alliances in order to improve international relations between countries (science for diplomacy). The author carries out a systematic analysis and gives a generalized description of their effectiveness and efficiency.
The article analyzes the experience of the international cooperation of scientists through personal initiative and under the auspices of the National Science Foundation and other associations, such as the AAAS, GIS or LIGO. They have become a platform for studying the practices of the first and second dimensions of science diplomacy – “science in diplomacy” and “diplomacy for science.”
Particular attention is paid to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, which initiated the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, and, accordingly, the development of such a dimension as a “science for diplomacy”. Date of scientists who are in the movement, make a significant contribution to the development of international scientific cooperation and create conditions to improve the political climate.
The author proposes as a landmark example of the third dimension of science diplomacy consider the Union of Concerned Scientists – Union of Concerned Scientists, which was founded in 1969 by faculty and students at MIT.
Also, special attention is paid to the periodization of the development of science diplomacy, as the author concludes that it was after World War II, when scientists themselves have become actively involved in the resolution of international conflicts and received an impact on foreign policy as the actors of international relations.