The Integration of Eastern Europe into the European Science & Technology System: the Case of Poland and Hungary (2004–2014)
The article discusses issues related to the integration of Eastern European countries into the supranational science & and technology area of the European Union (EU). In particular, the article investigates the experience of Poland and Hungary, two countries with similar backgrounds, in their reform of science, technology and education (STE) for subsequent entry into the EU and the integration of the national STE systems into the European Union structures. The chronological framework covers a ten year period (2004–2014), which starts from the accession of Poland and Hungary in to the European Union (early 2004) and ends on with the current state of STE in those countries (late 2014). The article describes the main stages of reforms in STE in these two countries during this period, estimated their results, as well as provides a comparison of the present state of affairs in science and education. The final part of the article summarizes the comparisons, pointing out that Poland and Hungary, despite having similar socio-economic background, choose two different strategies to develop the national STE system.